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What is better? High-Speed Steels endmill or Cemented carbide endmill ?

Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-09-14      Origin: Site

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What is better? High-Speed Steels endmill or Cemented carbide endmill ?

High-speed steel (HSS) and carbide are common tool materials that play a key role in many fields such as manufacturing, aerospace, automotive industry, construction industry, mining, medical field and electronics industry due to their excellent properties . Their superior performance and durability make them an indispensable material choice in modern industry. Tungsten steel is not equal to high-speed steel.

1. Characteristics of high-speed steel

High Speed Steel end mill, or HSS for short, is a high-quality tool steel.

Widely used in industrial fields such as metal processing, drilling, milling, cutting and turning.

The main components of high-speed steel are alloy elements such as carbon, chromium, tungsten, and molybdenum.

High-speed steel is often used to manufacture complex thin-edged and impact-resistant cutting tools, and can also be used in areas such as molds and sheet metal processing.

Because high-speed steel contains high alloying elements, it needs to be quenched and tempered at high temperatures to achieve its desired properties.

The red hardness of high-speed steel can reach up to 650 degrees, and the machinable hardness can reach HRC64-68.

High speed steel material

2. Characteristics of cemented carbide

Carbide end mill, also known as Carbide tungsten cobalt, is a material known for its excellent hardness, wear resistance and high temperature resistance.

Carbide is widely used in CNC machining centers, molds, medical industry, auto parts, aerospace and other fields.

It is a composite material made of hard powders such as tungsten (W) powder and tungsten carbide (WC) and cobalt (Co) or other metal powders sintered at high temperature.

The main components of cemented carbide include tungsten carbide powder (usually tungsten carbide) and a binder, usually cobalt. The materials are mixed and sintered at high temperatures to form a hard and durable composite.

Carbide is mainly used to manufacture high-hardness molds and cutting tools, such as high-hardness cutting edges.

Carbide is ready for use after normalizing, tempering and annealing. Generally speaking, the hardness, wear resistance and heat resistance of cemented carbide are better than those of high-speed steel.

Carbide is used for cutting cast iron, non-ferrous metals, plastics, graphite, and ordinary steel. It can also be used for difficult-to-cut materials such as titanium alloys, nickel-based alloys, heat-resistant alloys, and austenitic stainless steel. High density, high strength, high hardness, good wear resistance, good red hardness and other excellent properties. It is basically unchanged at a temperature of 500 degrees Celsius, and has high hardness even at a temperature of 1000 degrees Celsius.

The hardness of red carbide can reach 800-1000 degrees, the high-temperature carbide content exceeds that of high-speed steel, and the hardness can reach HRC75-80.
The difference between high-speed steel and cemented carbide is that high-speed steel needs to undergo a heat treatment process to increase its own hardness. If it has not been heat-treated, it itself will be soft.

Carbide material

Here's how to distinguish carbide and high-speed steel under popular science:

The first type of grinding wheel spark identification, the dark red sparks are high-speed steel. The second type is carbide that is easily brittle when struck with a hammer. The third method is to experiment with magnets. Carbide does not attract, but high-speed steel does.

There are significant cost differences between high-speed steel (HSS) and cemented carbide in the manufacturing and use processes. These differences are mainly related to material cost, tool life and production efficiency. The following is an analysis of the cost differences between high-speed steel and cemented carbide:

The raw materials of high-speed steel are relatively cheap, and compared with cemented carbide, the cost of these materials is lower. The raw materials for cemented carbide are relatively expensive, especially if they contain a high proportion of cobalt.

High-speed steel cutting tools, while relatively inexpensive, generally have a shorter life in cutting jobs. This means that under high-intensity, high-wear or high-temperature cutting conditions, tools need to be replaced more frequently, which increases labor and tool costs. Carbide cutting tools generally have a longer life due to their superior wear resistance and hardness. They can continue to operate in more challenging cutting conditions, reducing the frequency of tool changes and associated costs.

HSS cutting tools generally require more careful cutting parameter settings to avoid excessive wear and tool damage. This can result in slower cutting speeds and lower productivity, so more man-hours and labor costs may be required. Carbide cutting tools are often able to operate at higher cutting speeds, increasing productivity. They can run at higher feed and cutting speeds, so typically require fewer man-hours and lower labor costs.

All things considered, although carbide has higher raw material costs, they can achieve lower overall costs in some applications due to their longer tool life and higher productivity. But in certain low-demand and light-duty cutting tasks, high-speed steel remains an affordable option. Therefore, the choice of tool material should be made based on specific machining needs, cost budget and production efficiency.

To summarize, both carbide and high-speed steel play key roles in manufacturing, but they differ in their properties and applications. Understanding their characteristics and when to use which material is critical to effective cutting tool selection to ensure tool performance and machining quality.

Although cemented carbide and high-speed steel are both processing materials, they have significant differences in alloy factors, uses, and processing performance. In daily production and processing, reasonable selection and use according to the needs of different workpieces, equipment, materials, etc. can better play the role of cemented carbide and high-speed steel.

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